|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 59-60
Time to Trust
Center of Bariatric Surgery, Wockhardt Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||27-Sep-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||28-Sep-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||11-Oct-2022|
Dr. Ramen Goel
C10, Wockhardt Hospital, Agripada, Mumbai - 400 011, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Goel R. Time to Trust. J Bariatr Surg 2022;1:59-60
A leading businessman usually referred to as “Warren Buffett of India” with assets of over $5.8 billion breathed his last barely a week after launching a new airline. Living in a metropolitan city with quality health-care facilities, he passed away peacefully in sleep. Eulogizing obituaries mentioned his extraordinary entrepreneurial skills and business leadership, but little was discussed about an avoidable death at the age of just 62 years.
Neither education, disease awareness, and affordability nor intention to receive treatment differentiated him from over 350 million (~30% of the population). Indians suffer from metabolic syndrome (MS), a cascade of diseases, leading to poor health and physical limitation. MS is known to increase the risk of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular events, brain stroke, renal failure, and even early death.
With MS prevalence affecting 50% of the 50–59 years age group population in India, urgent attention is required to contain spiralling rates of abdominal obesity (31.4%), hypertriglyceridemia (45.6%), low–high density lipoprotein (HDL) (65.5%), hypertension (55.4%), and raised fasting blood sugar (26.7%). These are higher for Indians than Caucasians and even other South Asian ethnic groups like Malays and Chinese.
The precipitating factors of this runaway India-specific epidemic include poor dietary habits (increasing consumption of carbohydrates, fats [dairy and hydrogenated fats], and low vegetable and fruit intake), increased sedentary behavior, higher stress levels, migration-related uncertainties, maternal malnutrition, and improving socioeconomic status.
Health awareness and community-based interventions remain the mainstay of prevention and have shown significant improvement., However, diagnosed individuals (~330 million Indians) are likely to require lifelong treatment of not only individual components (diabetes, raised triglycerides, weight gain, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) but also related complications such as coronary heart disease, brain stroke, and renal failure.
Bariatric procedures in suitable candidates remain the most effective treatment modality for MS with a 96% reduction in triglyceride levels and an 83% increase in HDL cholesterol. Postsurgical adiponectin increase is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. While the reduction in insulin resistance and Insulin like Growth Factor - 1 (IGF-1) lowers the risk of common carotid intima-media thickness in young, morbidly obese patients. Heat shock protein 60, a likely molecular link between adiposity-related inflammation and heightened risk of cardiovascular disease too decreases after bariatric surgery.
A recent meta-analysis has shown significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events in the bariatric surgery group as compared to the nonsurgery group (odds ratio = 0.49; 95% confidence interval 0.40–0.60; P < 0.00001; I2 = 93%). Long-term nationwide comparative follow-up studies have shown 49% reduced cardiovascular infarction risk and 59% lower cardiovascular deaths in the bariatric surgery group than that in the control group.
Even though bariatric surgery has been accepted by the International Diabetes Federation and the American Diabetes Association as part of the standard of care, only 1% of the eligible persons undergo surgery in the USA, as many eligible individuals believe that they are not heavy enough or are not suitable for surgery.
In a study to analyze the referring patterns, eligible patients stated that 71.1% of physicians did not discuss or offer bariatric options. Only after the patient (s) initiated a discussion, 80.6% of physicians supported bariatric procedures and 18.4% agreed to refer to a bariatric surgeon. The various reasons for hesitancy include questioning attitude toward long-term results, ignorance of inclusion of surgery in the treatment algorithm, and considering it as a measure of last resort.
It is time that patients suffering from MS are offered bariatric surgery as an option early enough for better glycemic control, comorbidities prevention, quality of life improvement, and reduced related deaths. It is time to reinforce trust in science, research, and data among patients, physicians, and subspecialists to improve patient outcomes.
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